Contingent teaching through low-tech audience response systems using Plickers to support student learning and assessment

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M. Sara Lowe Katharine V. Macy Sean M. Stone


For one-shot instruction sessions, formative assessment is the most feasible method for gathering data to aid contingent teaching, the practice of adapting to learners’ needs. Various technologies aid in the quick and efficient gathering of data on student learning in the classroom that can be used for formative assessment. Outside of a library teaching space or computer classroom, it is difficult to know what technology is available, what technology students can access, and how best to aid data collection that engages students, provides meaningful data to allow for contingent teaching, and is not dependent on student technology ownership. A low-tech audience response system has provided an opportunity to collect data on student learning and enable contingent teaching. This project report contributes to the field of information literacy research describing how a low-tech audience response system supports contingent teaching and innovates practice in different classroom situations.

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How to Cite
LOWE, M. Sara; MACY, Katharine V.; STONE, Sean M.. Contingent teaching through low-tech audience response systems. Journal of Information Literacy, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 2, p. 235-252, dec. 2019. ISSN 1750-5968. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 sep. 2021. doi:
Project reports