Framing Behaviours in Novice Interaction Designers

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Nicole Lotz Helen Sharp Mark Woodroffe Richard Blyth Dino Rajah Turugare Ranganai


Framing design problems and solutions has been
recognised in design studies as a central designerly
activity. Some recent findings with expert designers relate
framing practices to problem–solution co-evolution and
analogy use, two further widely recognised design
strategies. We wanted to understand if interaction design
novices also use co-evolution and analogies to frame their
thinking. Furthermore we wanted to see if there are any
differences across cultures. The paper reports an analysis
of data gained from protocol studies with novice
interaction designers in the UK and Botswana. Novice
interaction designers in the UK and Botswana show some
similarities in framing behaviours using co-evolution and
opening analogies to develop metaphorical themes in
framing. But within these observations we also found
differences across the cohorts, such as different numbers
of co-evolution episodes or opening analogies. The
implications are discussed in the light of adopting
appropriate design pedagogy for novices in different
cultures. To increase reframing and generation of more
ideas in UK design novices, educators would need to
increase the number of leaps between problem and
solution spaces. To encourage Botswana groups to frame
ideas and work them through in depth, educators would
need to discourage students from building too many
bridges. Educators are also encouraged to experiment with
prohibiting opening analogies to see what other framing
behaviours occur.

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How to Cite
LOTZ, Nicole et al. Framing Behaviours in Novice Interaction Designers. Design and Technology Education: an International Journal, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 1, feb. 2015. ISSN 1360-1431. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 02 feb. 2023.
co-evolution, framing, analogy, design novices, interaction design, culture